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A blockchain is a digitally distributed log that facilitates the process of recording transactions and information across a network.


Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI) designs still or animated visual content with computer software. CGI is also known as 3D imaging or 3D Rendering. CGI includes methods such as:

  • Using algorithms to produce complex fractal patterns

  • 2D pixel-based image editors to create vector shapes

  • 3D graphics software to build all structures and figures from simple shapes to complex forms

Read more: 

CGI Influencer

Digital influencers are created using algorithms producing complex fractal patterns, 2D pixel-based image editors, 3D graphics software, and motion graphics, which are defined as pieces of animation or digital footage which create the illusion of motion or rotation (McDonald, 2020). 

Circular Fashion

Circular fashion can be defined as garments, footwear or accessories that are designed,

sourced, produced and sold with the intention to be worn and reworn

for as long as possible, and subsequently return safely to the biosphere when no longer worn

Read more:

Circular Fibres Initiative Analysis Based on Euromonitor International Apparel & Footwear

2016 Edition (Volume Sales Trends 2005e2015), 2016.

Circular Fibres Initiative Materials Flow Analysis and Euromonitor International Apparel &

Footwear, 2016. Edition (volume sales trends 2005e2015).

Rathinamoorthy, R. (2019). Circular Economy in Textiles and Apparel.

Costume Books

Costume books emerged as a collection of images in the sixteenth century in Europe illustrating the dress worn by people of different ranks and cities. 

Some of the earlier costume books included figures from around the world, such as Cesare Vecellio’s Habiti antichi, et moderni di tutto il mondo (Giovanni Bernardo Sessa: Venice, 1598), while some of the later books focused on one city, such as Giacomo Franco’s Habiti d’huomeni et donne venetiane, which he first published in Venice in 1610. Others include figures from particular nations or regions, such as Nicolas de Nicolay’s Les quatre premiers livres des navigations et peregrinations orientales (Guillaume Rouillé: Lyon, 1568). They were sometimes accompanied by text describing the dress and related customs.


Costume books typically focused on the dress of the elite, but many of them also include representations of peasants, artisans and other non-elite individuals.

Read more:

Anna Buruma, `What Incredible Delight Is Taken in Beholding the Diversities of People’ : The Costumebooks of Abraham de Bruyn, 1995; Giulia Calvi, “Cultures of Space: Costume Books, Maps, and Clothing between Europe and Japan (Sixteenth through Nineteenth Centuries),” I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance20, no. 2 (September 2017): 331–63,


Jo Anne Olian, “Sixteenth-Century Costume Books,” Dress3, no. 1 (January 1, 1977): 20–47,


Charlotte Colding Smith, “‘Depicted with Extraordinary Skill’: Ottoman Dress in Sixteenth-Century German Printed Costume Books,” Textile History44, no. 1 (May 1, 2013): 25–50,


Cesare Vecellio, The Clothing of the Renaissance World: Europe, Asia, Africa, the Americas: Cesare Vecellio’s Habiti Antichi et Moderni, ed. Margaret F. Rosenthal and Ann Rosalind Jones (London; New York: Thames & Hudson, 2008).

Fashion Plates

A fashion plate is an illustration demonstrating the highlights of fashionable styles of clothing. Traditionally they are rendered through etching, line engraving, or lithograph and then colored by hand. 


Created by the French, fashion plates are images depicting women, and sometimes men, dressed in the latest styles and trends. Even after the advent of photography in the 1830s, fashion plates disseminated the most current fashion trends and provided a reference that instructed their dressmaker how to construct or alter a garment in the latest style. Those who made these illustrations used copper and steel engravings, hence the name “fashion plate.” 

Flying Shuttle

John. Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 to help weavers weave fabrics of different widths more efficiently. He mounted the shuttle on wheels on a set of tracks and used paddles to move the shuttle from side to side when the weaver jerked a cord. 


Generative adversarial networks (GANs) are algorithmic structures that utilize two neural networks in opposition to generate new, synthetic data that mimics real data. They are widely used in image, video and voice generation.

Read more:

Paul, Olympia A., "Deepfakes Generated by Generative Adversarial Networks" (2021). Honors College Theses. 671.

Market Levels of the Fashion Industry

The fashion industry can be broken down into six market levels or sub-industries: Haute Couture, luxury, diffusion lines, bridge brands, high street brands, and economy. One can picture these levels as a triangle with Haute Couture at the top.  

The "New Look"

The "New Look" collection spotlighted ultra-femininity and romance in women's fashion, which differed from the clean, basic lines worn throughout World War II. Dior’s “New Look” emerged in 1947 and dominated womenswear in the 1950’s (Tortora and Marcketti, 2015). His collection featured hourglass silhouettes that remained the main style until the mid-1950’s (Walford, 2011). Dior offered not merely a new look but a new hopeful outlook after a time of hardship (Koda, 2009). The fabric shortage and restrictions during World War II pressured individuals and designers to conserve fabric. The conservation of fabric was evident in length and silhouette of women’s dresses. However, as the war ended in 1945, more ornamented fashions emerged, and designers began using excess fabric, following Dior’s lead.


Women’s fashion emphasized elegance, formality, and matching accessories, which was most noticeable in eveningwear. Classic jewelry rose in popularity in the 1950’s to complement the emphasis on romance and femininity in clothing. Shoes were commonly basic, classy single color and coordinated perfectly with an outfit’s accessories in the 1950’s. However, the emphasize on refinement was still reflected in women’s footwear, and women tended to favor closed shoes.

Smart (Blockchain) Contract

Smart contracts are also called digital certificates. They are decentralized code that operate on blockchains. Smart contracts facilitate the buying and selling of NFTs and are what makes each NFT unique.

Spinning Jenny

The spinning jenny used eight spindles onto which the thread was spun. The operator could spin eight threads at once by turning one wheel. With the help of technology, the eight spindles increased to 80.

Tiers of the Supply Chain

Tier 1: Assembly factories: Cutting, sewing, assembling and packing for shipment.

Tier 1+: Subcontracted assembly factories.

Tier 2: Processing facilities: Fabric production.

Tier 3: Processing facilities: Yarn spinners and fiber processors.

Tier 4: Raw material suppliers.​

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